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The Courtship and Nesting Behavior of Coppersmith Barbet and Eurasian Tree Sparrow

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INTRODUCTION

Field observations are pertinent to the science of birdwatching. There's where all the primary data are collected and analysed by scientists.  An understanding of nest-site behavior of birds could also provide valuable insights to conservationists on how they can develop conservation programmes on habitat requirements for cavity-nesters such as barbets, woodpeckers, hornbills and in this case Eurasian Tree Sparrow as well. Like humans, many species of animals do engage in some sort of courtship display with an ultimate aim of luring a suitable mate. Most of these courtship displays are performed by males as i have observed.
LITERATURE REVIEW
According to Melissa Mayntz (2019), the exact type of courtship displays can vary greatly between species. Even birds of the same species may also show different courtship variations in different regions. Generally the courtship behavior of birds can be divided into the following types (Melissa Mayntz, 2019):
i) By way of singing -…

Land of the Apes and other Primates - Aug 2019

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While waiting for migrant birds to return to our shores (some of them are already here in small batches for example the waders), i took the opportunity to explore a forest reserve in a northern state of Peninsular Malaysia recently. The place looks a bit like the location of Chongkak, Selangor but the jungles here are more pristine. There were however more mammals than birds in this forest. The absence of sharma and other song birds here are a cause for concern in this forest. They have probably been wiped out for the bird trade. Nevertheless the primates here seem to strive pretty well. 
The first great ape to greet me was this "White-Handed Gibbon" (Hylobates lar).  I believe this is a female. She came down quite low to observe me for a moment before scrambling back to the tree top. Note: local primate researchers Dr Susan Lappan and Dr Nadine confirmed that the above gibbon is an adult female.
She is a lifer to me in terms of the great apes. This gibbon is currently list…

My 20 Most Memorable Avian Photos (1st Half of 2019)

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When i was a kid, i used to have many hobbies. Since my house was just a bicycle ride away from rubber estates, paddyfields and jungle streams, catching spiders & bugs, jungle trekking, and catching fish (puyu & sepat benua) were the norms. As we grow older some hobbies will just fade away but one hobby has remained till todate i.e bird watching. Although birders come and go just like the mist at dawn, i guess bird watching is a sustainable hobby. This is due to the fact that we can find birds in every continents.  One can find birds even in Antarctica (penguins are considered as birds too) or in the deserts (road runners, some hawks, owls, sand larks etc).
Here are my twenty (20) most memorable avian photos taken in the 1st half of 2019. Enjoy the feast:

Pacific Swallow A friendly bird. Photo was taken at a river jetty.

According to the American Birding Association and i believe most birding rules too, a bird must be "Alive, Wild and Unrestrained" in order to be off…